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EIU Teaching with Primary Sources

Teaching Illinois with Primary Sources

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Introduction | Primary Sources and Analysis Tools |
Library of Congress Resources | Primary Source Set

Choose a link below to access printable PDF versions of these materials including additional information, color images and citations.
Teaching Illinois with Primary Sources Resource Booklet | Primary Source Set

Library of Congress Resources


Lincoln at Springfield
Lincoln would not return to his adopted home of Springfield, Illinois, until his funeral cortege retraced the journey he had made as president-elect five years earlier.

Artist William Waud was sent by Harper's Weeklyto follow the cortege as it traveled 1,662 miles in fourteen days by train through Philadelphia, New York, Cleveland, Chicago, and finally to Springfield. Waud captured the solemnity of May 4, 1865, as Lincoln's body lay in state in the Illinois House of Representatives. Like his brother Alfred, William Waud was recognized as one of the great sketch artists of the Civil War era.
Accessed 5.26.09

Public Schools for Young Americans
This bird's-eye view map of Young America, Illinois, emphasizes the importance that nineteenth-century Americans placed on a free public education for their children. Also evident from this print is the town's grid street pattern, which echoes the nation's rectangular survey system in which section sixteen in every township was reserved for the benefit of financing public schools, one of the ideals of American democracy.
Accessed 5.26.09

Chicago: Destination for the Great Migration: The African-American Mosaic
This exhibit marks the publication of The African-American Mosaic: A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Black History and Culture. A noteworthy and singular publication, the Mosaic is the first Library-wide resource guide to the institution's African- American collections. Covering the nearly 500 years of the black experience in the Western hemisphere, the Mosaic surveys the full range size, and variety of the Library's collections, including books, periodicals, prints, photographs, music, film, and recorded sound. Moreover, the African-American Mosaic represents the start of a new kind of access to the Library's African-American collections, and, the Library trusts, the beginning of reinvigorated research and programming drawing on these, now systematically identified, collections.
Accessed 5.26.09

The Lincoln Douglas Debates
Candidate Abraham Lincoln assembled this scrapbook of news accounts reporting the seven debates between himself and Senator Stephen Douglas for the Illinois seat in the 1858 U.S. Senate campaign. Recognizing that the partisan nature of the press could lead to inaccuracies, Lincoln had his speeches clipped from newspapers sympathetic to the Republican Party and the speeches of Douglas clipped from the Democratic press. Lincoln occasionally made notes in the margins when he felt the reportage required changes or comment.
Accessed 5.26.09

Language of the Land
From small town Elgin to the skyline of Chicago, Language of the Land displays photographs and maps to coincide with the poems by great poets from the midwest. Included in this exhibit is an authors map of Illinois.

Lincoln's Hand
Shortly after Lincoln was nominated for the presidency, Chicago sculptor Leonard Volk cast the nominee's hands at the Lincoln home in Springfield, Illinois. Lincoln's right hand had become swollen after shaking the hands of countless well-wishers in his hometown. When Volk suggested that his subject hold something, Lincoln sawed off a portion of a broom stick, which is visible in the casting.
Accessed 5.27.09

LBJ as Caesar
On May 24, 1966, Illinois Republican Everett Dirksen (1896-1968) took the Senate floor to call for a "thorough discussion of the diplomatic, military and political situation in Vietnam." He attacked President Lyndon B. Johnson (1908-1973) for lack of candor as military engagements increased and United States warplanes carried out a record number of air strikes on North Vietnam. Dirksen and Johnson had become good friends during the time both served in the Senate, and Dirksen's words represented a change from his long support for Johnson's policies in Vietnam. The cartoon alludes to William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, in which Caesar says, "Et tu, Brute?" when stabbed by his trusted friend Brutus. The title plays on Dirksen's first name, Everett.

Prints and Photographs
A search for "Illinois" in the Prints and Photographs collection will return a wide variety of images. Architecture, political cartoons and everyday life are just a few of the topics on Illinois.

American Memory

The Emergence of Advertising in American 1850-1920
Emergence of Advertising in Americapresents over 9,000 images relating to the early history of advertising in the United States. Items related to Illinois include advertisements for excursions to Chicago, lecturers and many unique products  such as bicycles, sewing machines, "germproof" glass telephone mouthpiece and the Excelsior spraying outfit.
Accessed 5.27.09

The African-American Experience in Ohio 1850-1920
This selection of manuscript and printed text and images drawn from the collections of the Ohio Historical Society illuminates the history of black Ohio from 1850 to 1920, a story of slavery and freedom, segregation and integration, religion and politics, migrations and restrictions, harmony and discord, and struggles and successes. This collection contains mostly newspaper clippings related to Illinois. The topics include political news, reports of lynchings and some family letters.
Accessed 5.27.09

Built in America
The Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) collections are among the largest and most heavily used in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. Illinois is represented in this collection by railroads, bridges, courthouses and structures designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
Accessed 5.27.09

An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera
An American Time Capsule, the online presentation of the Printed Ephemera collection, comprises 17,000 of the 28,000 physical items.While the broadside format represents the bulk of the collection, there are a significant number of leaflets and some pamphlets. Rich in variety, the collection includes proclamations, advertisements, blank forms, programs, election tickets, catalogs, clippings, timetables, and menus. Many of these items pertain to Illinois such as They capture the everyday activities of ordinary people who participated in the events of nation-building and experienced the growth of the nation from the American Revolution through the Industrial Revolution up to present day. A future final release will include thousands of oversize items in the collection.
Accessed 5.28.09

Photographs from the Chicago Daily News 1902-1933 
This collection comprises over 55,000 images of urban life captured on glass plate negatives between 1902 and 1933 by photographers employed by the Chicago Daily News, then one of Chicago's leading newspapers. The photographs illustrate the enormous variety of topics and events covered in the newspaper, although only about twenty percent of the images in the collection were published in the newspaper. Most of the photographs were taken in Chicago, Illinois, or in nearby towns, parks, or athletic fields. In addition to many Chicagoans, the images include politicians, actors, and other prominent people who stopped in Chicago during their travels and individual athletes and sports teams who came to Chicago.
Accessed 5.29.09

American Enviromental Photographs1891-1936 
Produced between 1891 and 1936 by a group of American botanists generally regarded as one of the most influential in the development of modern ecological studies, these photographs provide an overview of important representative natural landscapes across the nation. Many images of the state parks in Illinois are found in this collection.
Accessed 5.28.09 

Chicago Anarchists on Trial Evidence from the Haymarket Affair 1886-1887 
This collection showcases more than 3,800 images of original manuscripts, broadsides, photographs, prints and artifacts relating to the Haymarket Affair. The violent confrontation between Chicago police and labor protesters in 1886 proved to be a pivotal setback in the struggle for American workers' rights. These materials pertain to: the May 4, 1886 meeting and bombing; to the trial, conviction and subsequent appeals of those accused of inciting the bombing; and to the execution of four of the convicted and the later pardon of the remaining defendants. Of special interest and significance are the two dozen images of three-dimensional artifacts, including contemporary Chicago Police Department paraphernalia, labor banners, and an unexploded bomb casing given to juror J. H. Brayton by Chicago Police Captain Michael Schaack.
Accessed on 5.28.09

American Landscape and Architectural Design 1850-1920
This collection of approximately 2,800 lantern slides represents an historical view of American buildings and landscapes built during the period 1850-1920. Cities, parks, estates and Frank Lloyd Wright studio are only a few of the places in Illinois that are part of this collection.
Accessed 5.28.09  

The Alfred Whital Stern Collection of Lincolniana
A study of Illinois would not be complete without collections pertaining to Abraham Lincoln. Contemporary newspapers, Lincoln’s law papers, sheet music, broadsides, prints, cartoons, maps, drawings, letters, campaign tickets, and other ephemeral items are all included in this collection.
Accessed 5.28.09

Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress
The complete Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress consists of approximately 20,000 documents. The collection is organized into three "General Correspondence" series which include incoming and outgoing correspondence and enclosures, drafts of speeches, and notes and printed material. Most of the 20,000 items are from the 1850s through Lincoln's presidential years, 1860-65. Treasures include Lincoln's draft of the Emancipation Proclamation, his March 4, 1865, draft of his second Inaugural Address, and his August 23, 1864, memorandum expressing his expectation of being defeated for re-election in the upcoming presidential contest. The Lincoln Papers are characterized by a large number of correspondents, including friends and associates from Lincoln's Springfield days, well-known political figures and reformers, and local people and organizations writing to their president. 
Accessed 5.28.09

Map Collections
Unique and rich in color, these maps cover Illinois cities and towns, rivers and railroad, landscapes and military battles and campaigns. The Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress holds more than 4.5 million items, of which Map Collections represents only a small fraction, those that have been converted to digital form. The Map Collection is actually made up of several indexes. Since a map will be assigned to only one category, unless it is part of more than one core collection, searching Map Collections at this level will provide the most complete results since the indexes for all categories are searched simultaneously.
Accessed 5.28.09

The Nineteenth Century in Print: Periodicals
This collection presents twenty-three popular periodicals digitized by Cornell University Library and the Preservation Reformatting Division of the Library of Congress. They include literary and political magazines, as well as Scientific American, Manufacturer and Builder, and Garden and Forest: A Journal of Horticulture, Landscape Art, and Forestry. The longest run is for The North American Review, 1815-1900.  A range of topics concerning Illinois are found in these periodicals. Accessed 5.28.09 

Panoramic Maps 1847-1929 
The panoramic map was a popular cartographic form used to depict U.S. and Canadian cities and towns during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Known also as bird's-eye views, perspective maps, and aero views, panoramic maps are nonphotographic representations of cities portrayed as if viewed from above at an oblique angle. Although not generally drawn to scale, they show street patterns, individual buildings, and major landscape features in perspective.  Part of the overall Map Collection, Illinois towns and cities are abundant in this collection.
Accessed 5.28.09

Panoramic Photographs: Taking the Long View 1851-1991
These panoramas offer an overview of the nation, its enterprises and its interests, with a focus on the start of the twentieth century when the panoramic photo format was at the height of its popularity. Subjects on Illinois include universities, schools, conventions and many more. Accessed 5.28.09

By the People, For the People: Posters from the WPA 1936-1943
This collection displays posters promoting education, recreation and health in Illinois. These striking silkscreen, lithograph, and woodcut posters were designed to publicize health and safety programs; cultural programs including art exhibitions, theatrical, and musical performances; travel and tourism; educational programs; and community activities in seventeen states and the District of Columbia. Accessed 5.29.09

Railroad Maps
The Railroad maps represent an important historical record, illustrating the growth of travel and settlement as well as the development of industry and agriculture in the United States. They depict the development of cartographic style and technique, highlighting the achievement of early railroaders. Included in the collection are progress report surveys for individual lines, official government surveys, promotional maps, maps showing land grants and rights-of-way, and route guides published by commercial firms.  The Illinois Galbraith map is included in this collection along with other interesting maps of Illinois. Accessed 5.29.09

Touring Turn of the Century America Photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company 1880-1920  
Bridges, major buildings and landscapes of Illinois are found in this collection. photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company Collection includes more than 25,000 glass negatives and transparencies as well as about 300 color photolithograph prints. Accessed 5.29.09

Baseball Cards 1887-1914 
Collecting baseball cards have always been an extremely popular past time. In this collections you will find cards from great Illinois teams like the Chicago Cubs, Chicago Maroons, Chicago White Sox and Chicago White Stockings. These cards have legendary players in vivid colors.

Teacher's Page

Today in History is designed to help educators use American Memory Collections to teach history and culture.

December 3, 1818: Illinois entered the Union as the 21st state.

December 2, 1942: The Atomic Age. 

November 28, 1895: First American Automobile Race.

July 21, 1899: Earnest Hemingway was born.

Presentations and Activities
Presentations and Activities are designed with teachers in mind offering hands-on activities and feature presentations to look across the American Memory collections and investigate curricular themes. They include historical background, helping to tell the story behind the theme.
Accessed 5.28.09

Selected Library of Congress Resources for Illinois

Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-1877: The North During the Civil War, Bushwackers in Southern Illinois

Themed Resources

Abraham Lincoln This section of the Learning Page will give you other areas on the Library of Congress website to explore. You will find collections in American Memory, search terms and you can even read the transcripts from the live chat session.

Collection Connections

Collection Connections provide activity ideas for using the collections to develop critical thinking skills.

Photographs from the Chicago Daily News, 1902-1933
Themes and subheadings are History (Labor, World War I: The Home Front, Social Services, Prohibition, Women's Suffrage, Sports in the Progressive Era); Critical Thinking (Chronological Thinking, Historical Comprehension: Immigration and Diversity, Historical Analysis and Interpretation, Historical Issue-Analysis and Decision Making: The Pullman Strike and Historical Research Capabilities); Arts and Humanities (Architecture: The Chicago School, Public Art, The Jungle, Creative Writing: Descriptive Journalism, Persuasive and Expository Writing).
Accessed 6.1.09

Chicago Anarchist on Trial: Evidence from the Haymarket Affair, 1866-1887 
Themes and subheadings included are History (Historical Context: Industrialization and Urbanization in the Post Civil War United States, The Labor Movement and its Radicalization, The Eight-Hour Workday Movement, Teh McCormick Riot, The Haymarket Riot, The Trial: State of Illinois vs. August Spies, et al, The Appeal,, Execution and Pardon); Critical Thinking (Chronological Thinking, Historical Comprehension, Historical Analysis and Interpretation, Historical Issue-Analysis and Decision Making, Historical Research Capabilities); Arts and Humanities (Image Analysis: Symbolism, Public Speaking, Radical Rhetoric, The Press and the Labor Movement, American Literature: William Dean Howells and the Haymarket Affair).


Floats like a Butterfly.
The monarch butterfly is one of the most readily recognized and beloved insects in North America. The king of the insect world, the monarch is known for its vivid orange and black markings and often bold behavior around people. Because of its popularity, the monarch is the state insect of Alabama, Idaho, Illinois, Minnesota, Texas and the state butterfly of Vermont and West Virginia. It was nominated in 1990 as the national insect of the United States, along with the honeybee, but the legislation never passed.
Accessed 5.29.09

Some People Call it "Organized Mayhem" Others Call it "Football". 
In the 20th century, American football developed from a game with few teams, few fans and little standardized equipment into a major sport. In the Chicago area, as elsewhere, some high schools and other groups sponsored football teams. But it was the college and university teams that grew rapidly in popularity. A star player, Harold "Red" Grange, generated tremendous excitement among fans that carried over from college to professional football. Grange was a three-time All-American while playing for the University of Illinois. When Red Grange signed to play with the Chicago Bears in 1925, he provided an enormous boost to the team and to the new National Football League.
Accessed 5.29.09

America's Library

Jump Back in Time Illinois Entered the Union as the 21st State, December 3, 1818

Jump Back in Time Activist Jane Addams was Born, September 6, 1860

Jump Back in Time National Labor Union Requested an Eight Hour Workday, August 20, 1866

Jump Back in Time Ernest Hemingway was Born, July 21, 1899

Jump Back in Time First American Automobile Race, November 28, 1895

Jump Back in Time Stephen A. Douglas was Born, April 23, 1813

Explore the States: Illinois

Meet Amazing Americas Abraham Lincoln's Youth


Illinois State Guide  
The digital collections of the Library of Congress contain a wide variety of material associated with Illinois, including manuscripts, broadsides, government documents, books, and maps. This guide compiles links to digital materials related to Illinois that are available throughout the Library of Congress Web site. In addition, it provides links to external Web sites focusing on Illinois and a bibliography containing selections for both general and younger readers.
Accessed 6.01.09

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