Source Home l Introduction l Places to Go Primary Sources to See l Toeing the Mark
This publication is created to be a source of information and inspiration for teachers as they incorporate Library of Congress digitized primary sources and resources into instruction by Teaching with Primary Sources at Eastern Illinois University.
Primary Sources in the Classroom l loc.gov l PDF with Images l PDF Text Only
The world population reached seven billion this year.4 Just 12 years earlier, the population was six billion.4 The annual population growth rate has declined to 1.2 percent per year yet the world population continues to grow by 83 million annually.4 The world's poorest countries experience the largest percent of the population growth making it difficult to rise out of poverty. Worldwide birth rates are declining with women averaging 2.5 children.4
The U.S. population between 2000 and 2010 increased by 9.7 percent from 281.4 million to 308.7 million.8 The only lower population growth rate was seen in the 1930s with a growth rate of 7.3 percent.8 States in the South and the West saw a population boom while populations decreased in many rural areas. The South grew by 14.3 million and the West increased by 8.7 million.8 The fastest growing state between 2000 and 2010 was Nevada growing by 35.1 percent. It is the only state that has maintained a growth rate of 25 percent or greater for the last three decades.8 It was followed by Arizona, Utah, Iowa and Texas.8 The slowest growing state was Michigan which actually declined in population by .06 percent.8
Rapid population growth is considered a recent occurrence. Until around 1750, birth rates accompanied high death rates, including death from war, famine and epidemics. With medical advances and improvements in the standard of living, killer diseases began to disappear. Many Americans made their living off the land, when people left the farm looking for work the cities saw a population increase. By 1900, there were 30 million people living in cities.5
New medical treatments and better medicines help Americans live longer. The Census Bureau reported that there are two million people in America over the age of 90, triple the number of just three decades ago.6 Women represent three-quarters of this older population.6 With a growing elderly population and lower birth rates problems with caring for the elderly will increase. Rising costs of health care are often a concern of the elderly. The Census Bureau projects the United States population will increase to 392 million by 2050.7
Connecting to Illinois
Before Illinois became a state, there was a census of the population. The census was taken in 1787 for Barthelemi Tardiseau, an agent sent to Washington D.C. to petition Congress for land grants for French and American settlers.2 While this is not an official census. which didn't start until 1800, it does give a glance at early Illinois.
From 1816, Illinois' population began a quick growth. An Illinois census taken in 1818 to support the quest for statehood reported a population of 40,000.1 At that time, a population of 60,000 was required for statehood.1 Even though Illinois didn't make the population requirement, it was deemed a sufficient population and granted statehood in 1818.
Illinois continued to grow becoming an example for other states to follow. The population of Illinois in 1830 was 157,445; in 1840, 476,183; in 1850, 851,470; and in 1860, 1,711,951.2 In the decade between 1850 and 1860 Illinois' population grew by 101.06 percent, more than doubling the population by settlement and natural increase.2 The census of 1860 stated, "The condition to which Illinois has attained under the progress of the last thirty years is a monument of the blessings of industry, enterprise, peace, and free institutions."2
In 2010, Illinois' population was 12.8 million, a small increase over the 2000 population.3 Even with this small increase, the demographics of Illinois are changing. Latinos are the state's largest minority group for the first time in Illinois history. Asians have become the fastest growing ethnic group in Illinois with a 38 percent growth rate.3 As expected most population growth has occurred in Chicago suburbs. In 2010, Kendall County had a population boom of 110.4 percent.3 Not all of Illinois is growing, number show that the population within the city of Chicago has declined by 200,418.3 Rural Illinois also experienced population losses. Pulaski County saw a population loss of 16.2 percent.3
Many factors will affect future population growth in Illinois. Illinois is still a popular destination for immigrants entering the United States and growth through immigration could remain strong. Growth in employment and number of children born, both of which can effect population, may be factors when we look at number for 2020.
Place to Go and Primary Sources to See
Charleston Carnegie Public Library
The Charleston Carnegie Public Library holds a wealth of information when it comes to populations. They have cemetery records, marriage indexes from 1830-1929, birth and death records from 1878-1915 and Federal Census for Coles county starting in 1840. These items are found in the Genealogy collection staffed by volunteers so it is best to call to set up an appointment to view these primary sources. check out your local library to find census records for your area.
Toeing the Mark
The eighth census of the United States included the year 1860, a time right before the full effects of the Civil War would be known. The census was devoted to reporting "the population fo the United States, as represented by number, sex, age, nativity and occupation." The census seems to show a growing country with a bright future. The country had grown from 31 to 35 states with five new territories being organized.2 The census states, "as general good health prevailed, and peace reigned throughout the country there was no apparent cause of disturbance or interruption to the natural progress of population. At the time no state had declined in population.
In 1860, there were fifteen slave states with a population of 12,240,000.2 Of these inhabitants, 8,039,000 were white, 251,000 were free colored persons and 3,950,000 were slaves.2 The nineteen free states and seven territories with the Federal District contained 19,203,008 people.2 The population consisted of 18,920,771 whites, 237,283 free colored and 41,725 civilized Indians.2 The country was growing by unprecedented gains.
A new element arose during the 1860 census, the growing statistic of negro slavery among Indian tribes. The Choctaw held 2,297 slaves, the Cherokees obtained 2,504, the Creeks had 1,651, and the Chickasaw had 917 slaves.2 The manumission of slaves doubled to a little over 3,000 during this census.2 This increase was seen mainly in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina and Tennessee. Fugitive slaves were reducing in number with Mississippi, Missouri and Virginia reporting an increase in escaped slaves.
Another peculiarity from this census was the surge of the male population. One cause of this population growth is the number of immigrant men leaving a home, wife and children to come to the United States. According to this census, the number of males in Illinois was around 92,000 or one-twelfth of the entire population.2 Illinois was not the only state with this problem, in Massachusetts females outnumbered males by 37,600. Yet in Michigan females were outnumbered by 40,000 males; Texas 36,000; and Wisconsin 43,000. In Colorado, the gap was as large as twenty males to every female.2
The census compares states with the most rapid and slow population growth. In 1860, Virginia had the lowest rate of increase in population with 12.29 percent.2 The white population gained 152,611 people as the slave population grew by 18,337.2 The fastest growing population was New York, which grew from 3,097,394 to 3,880,735 an increase of 783,341 from 1850 to 1860.2 The region of Texas was previously mostly wilderness, yet by 1860 the population was over 600,000 an increase of 184 percent.2
Birth rates climbed in 1860, with pioneer states Oregon, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Texas, Illinois, Kansas, and Arkansas having the largest increase in births. The territory of Utah had a large birth rate due to the practice of polygamy. Looking at the other end of the spectrum, the total number of deaths in 1860 were 394,123.2 This number of deceased seems insignificant compared to the more than 620,000 who died by the end of the Civil War.9 The number of people who died at the age of 100 or over was 466, of which 137 were white, 39 free slaves and 290 slaves.2 This large number is questionable as many slaves and people of little means were unsure of their actual birth year.
Primary Sources in the Classroom
The Teacher's Page The Library of Congress offers classroom materials and professional development to help
teachers effectively use primary sources from the Library's vast digital collections in their
Presentations and Activities Presentations and Activities offer media-rich historical context or interactive
opportunities for exploration to both teachers and students.
American Memory Timeline Rise of Industrial America, 1876-1900 City Life in the Late 19th Century. Learn about the tremendous growth of cities between 1850-1900, students can analyze two maps showing the population density of the city of Chicago in
1850 and 1900.
American Memory Timeline Rise to Industrial America, 1876-1900 Rural Life in the Late 19th Century Students use documents to analyze rural life in the late 19th century and understand how the rural population
growth compared to the urban growth.
Zoom into Maps Using historic maps from the library of Congress, students learn what maps can tell us. This presentation has a special section on migration and settlement. Students can follow the western migration and analyze a map showing distribution of slaves in the southern states based on the 1860 census.
Immigration Observe the building of the nation. How have immigrants shaped this land?
Lesson Plans Teacher created lesson plans using Library of Congress primary sources.
German Immigrants: Their Contributions to the Upper Midwest Why did Germans immigrate to the Upper Midwest in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century? What contributions did they make to the region's cultural heritage? Students use American Memory photographs and documents to answer these questions and others while strengthening their German
Themed Resources One-stop access to the Library's best exhibitions, activities, primary
sources, and lesson plans on popular curricular themes.
Immigration Trace the immigrant experience and study contributions by immigrant Americans through historic film clips; images of Ellis Island, Angel Island and immigrant groups; presentations, letters and manuscripts.
Primary Source Sets Sets of selected primary sources on specific topics, available as easy-
to-print PDFs. Also, background information, teaching ideas, and tools to guide student
Immigration Photographs, maps detailing immigration patterns. official documents, song sheets and streaming audio recount the immigrant experience in America, their reasons for leaving their homelands, and the reactions of established Americans.
America's Story Created for children, the Library of Congress, America's Story wants you to have fun with history while learning at the same time through interactive games and stories.
Jump Back in Time
Colonial America Discover what countries first settled in America and how the population of the 13 colonies
grew to two million by 1770.
Explore the States
Wyoming Learn about the big state that has the smallest population in the Union.
Utah Home of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints, the congregation of this church makes up 70 percent of the population of Utah.
New York The first settlement was established in 1624 but today New York has the third largest population in America.
California Nicknamed the "Golden State", California is the third largest state in area after Alaska and Texas.
American Memory American Memory provides free and open access through the Internet to written and spoken words, sound recordings, still and moving images, prints, maps and sheet music that document the American experience. It is a digital record of American history and creativity. These materials, from the collections of the Library of Congress and other institutions, chronicle historical events, people, places, and
ideas that continue to shape America, serving the public as a resource for
education and lifelong learning.
The Thomas Jefferson Papers
The complete Thomas Jefferson Papers from the Manuscript Division at the Library of Congress consists of approximately 27,000 documents. This is the largest collection of original Jefferson documents in the world. The collection
holds many documents relating to population. The October 1, 1880
census, the British Colonies of 1775 and the Louisiana population
translated in French are just a few of the documents in the Jefferson
Map Collections The Library of Congress holds more than 4.5 million items in the Geography and Map Division. Students can analyze maps from the early exploration of America to cities and how they have changed over time with the movement of the population. You can also view maps of other countries from early maps of the 1700s to maps of today.
A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875
This collection contains many miscellaneous documents pertaining to population. A special presentation, Indian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784-1894, "Indicates the number and location of each cession by or reservation for the Indian tribes from the organization for the Federal reserved, the date of the treaty, law or executive order governing the same, the name of the tribe or tribes affected thereby, and historical data and references bearing
thereon." The Schedule of Indian Land Cessions comprises 709 entries with links to the
related map or maps for each entry. The tables and essays are available in both search able
text and page images and the maps are available in images.
The Nineteenth Century in Print: Periodicals
This component of the Nineteenth Century in Print will incorporate magazines and journals, with an emphasis on those intended for a general audience. The periodical Manufacture and builder include articles on Population of the Earth, Population of the Globe and Population the World. There are also articles on the
population in major cities during 1880 and 1870 and articles covering the
populations of major cities overseas.
Today in History Each day an event from American history is illustrated by digitized items from
the Library of Congress American Memory historic collections.
March 15, 1820: The Pine Tree State Maine is the most sparsely populated state east of the Mississippi.
May 11, 1858: The Star of the North Until the second half of the nineteenth century, immigration into
Minnesota was slow. However, as the value of the state's woodlands and fertile prairie was
realized, settlers poured into the region with New England lumbermen leading the way.
Between 1850 and 1857, the state's population skyrocketed from 6,077 to over 150,000.
Prints and Photographs The collections of the Prints and Photographs Division include photographs, fine and popular prints and drawings, posters, and architectural and engineering drawings.
Posters: The Yanker Poster Collection The Yanker Poster Collection includes more than 3,000 political, propaganda, and social issue posters and handbills, dating 1927-1980. Most posters are from the United States, but over 55 other countries and the United Nations are also represented.
Webcasts Streaming video presentations on all sorts of subjects, from book talks by
authors, scientific breakthroughs in preservation, and historical footage form the dawn of film.
National Geospatial Digital Archive Geospatial data is information such as maps, imagery and data sets that
help us better understand, manage and monitor change in the present while providing insight into
the past. From the first colonial maps to the time-sequenced satellite imagery of the 21st century,
cartographic information has helped define our view of the country and the world.
Exhibitions Discover exhibitions that bring the world's largest collection of knowledge, culture, and creativity to life through dynamic displays of artifacts enhanced by interactivity.
Maps in our Lives View a California Population and Ethnic Distribution Map that shows two thematic elements, population and ethnic distribution shown side by side to create a powerful demographic portrait of California.
1. Internet Archive, Illinois Census Returns, 1810, 1818, accessed 11.7.11
2. U.S. Census Bureau, The United STates in 1860, accessed 11.7.11
3. Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois, Population Change During Trying Times:
Illinois' New Demographic Reality, by Dr. Matthew Hall, accessed 11.7.11
4. Population Reference Bureau, The World at 7 Billion, World Population Data Sheet, accessed 11.8.11
5. Library of Congress, Teacher's Page, Presentations and Activities, American Memory Timeline, Progressive
Era to New Era, 1900-1929, Cities during the Progressive Era, accessed 11.8.11
6. CBS News, More and More Americans living past 90, by Jonathan LaPook, accessed 8.18.11
7. United States Census Bureau, Population Profile of the United States, National Population Projections, by
Jennifer Cheeseman DAy, accessed 11.18.11
8. United States Census Bureau, Population Distribution and Change: 2000 to 2010, March 2011, by Paul
Mackun and Steven Wilson, accessed 11.21.11
9. PBS, The civil War, a Film by Ken Burns, Fact Sheet, accessed 11.21.11